Training and education
Diploma training and postgraduate training of specialists in occupational safety and health is provided by Institutes, Universities or Academies in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and other cities of the country.
Duration of this education is 5 years for safety engineer and 6 years for Occupational Hygienist, Occupational Physician, Occupational Pathologist, Toxicologist, Epidemiologist. Due to get a right for self-dependent practice the graduated medical professionals (Occupational hygienist in Russia has medical background training provided by Sanitary Hygiene Medical Faculty of the above mentioned institutions) should have a one year postgraduate training (subordinatura). The postgraduate training is mostly provided by special institutions like Medical Academy of Postgraduate Studies in Moscow, in Saint-Petersburg or in some other cities of Russia.
Occupational Health Departments of these type of postgraduate training institutions each year organize short term (1.5 – 3 – 6 months) courses for occupational health and safety professionals as well as for other specialists dealing with occupational safety and health. After these type of training course participants can obtain certificate of specialist.
Safety engineers are trained by special departments of Universities or other technical institutions. They also can take postgraduate training courses specially organized for them by occupational health departments. Topics and content as well as methodology of training are rather flexible because it should be adopted to new conditions and demands of a modern work practice. Access to postgraduate training in occupational health is open first of all for occupational hygienists, occupational physicians who provides occupational health service than for specialists employed in preliminary and periodical medical examinations, safety engineers. There is also a possibility to undertake a study and to prepare a thesis and get degree Ph.D. or D.Sc. (Medicine).
Distance learning courses are under consideration, however are not broadly used yet.
As an example list of postgraduate training courses organized by the Department of Occupational Health of the Medical Academy of Postgraduate Studies is given below:
– Courses within the Occupational Hygiene profile:
- Legislation on Occupational Health and Safety
- Adverse occupational factors and their impact on the human health
- Hygienic background for industrial ventilation and illumination
- Work environment and its relation to occupational and other work related diseases, prevention and control
- Arrangement and execution of the preliminary and periodical medical examination
- Workplace attestation
- Occupational stress
– Within the Occupational Pathology profile:
- Arrangement of the preventive and curative services at enterprises
- Medical screening and rehabilitation of workers suffering from occupational disease, the main principles
and tools for diagnostics of occupational diseases.
- Occupational allergies
- Mechanical vibration and angioneurotic vibration disease
- Occupational diseases of the peripheral nervous system and the locomotors system
- Ionizing radiation and radiation disease
- Pneumoconiosis and dust-inhaling bronchitis
- Impact of adverse occupational exposures on the female workers’ reproductive function
– Courses for engineers and technicians related to the safety at work service:
- Legislation for safety at work
- Hygienic features of adverse occupational exposures and occupational morbidity prevention
- Attestation of work plases on the quality of the work environment
- Tools for individual and collective protection at work
Topics related to toxic chemicals, ionizing radiation, epidemiology are covered by appropriate Departments. Workers are trained at special professional schools, employers and managers are also trained in occupational safety and health during carrier development and taking short-term postgraduate courses at special training centers. Undergraduate as well as postgraduate training in occupational health and safety from the methodology point of view is required improvement.
Participation of Russian specialists in international congresses, conferences and other events on occupational health due to limited of resources or sometimes due to language problems is quite limited. Companies have no interest to sponsor them since under the difficult economic situation the health is not the main priority today however economy improvement observed last years works along the line of wark conditions improvement.